pvlib.solarposition.solar_azimuth_analytical(latitude, hourangle, declination, zenith)[source]

Analytical expression of solar azimuth angle based on spherical trigonometry.

  • latitude (numeric) – Latitude of location in radians.

  • hourangle (numeric) – Hour angle in the local solar time in radians.

  • declination (numeric) – Declination of the sun in radians.

  • zenith (numeric) – Solar zenith angle in radians.


azimuth (numeric) – Solar azimuth angle in radians.


[1] J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, “Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 3rd Edition” pp. 14, J. Wiley and Sons, New York (2006)

[2] J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, “Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics” p. 132, J. Wiley (1998)

[3] Wikipedia: Solar Azimuth Angle

[4] PVCDROM: Azimuth Angle